“On any given day in the United States, an estimated 36.6% or approximately 84.8 million adults consume fast food,” said Cheryl Fryar, first author of the report and a health statistician at the CDC.

“We focused on fast food for this report because fast food has played an important role in the American diet in recent decades,” she said. “Fast food has been associated with poor diet and increased risk of obesity.”

On average, adults in the US consumed 11.3% of their total daily calories from fast food between 2007 and 2010, according to a National Center for Health Statistics data brief published in 2013.

Who eats the most and least fast food

The new report included data on about 10,000 people 20 and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2016.

The data revealed that fast food consumption varied by age, income level, race and sex. For instance, 44.9% of adults ages 20 to 39 said that they consumed fast food on a given day, compared with 37.7% of adults 40 to 59, and 24.1% of adults 60 and older.

No, poor people don’t eat the most fast food

The percentage of adults who said they consumed fast food rose with family income level, according to the report. Overall, 31.7% of lower-income, 36.4% of middle-income and 42% of higher-income adults said they had eaten fast food.

“What surprised me was the finding that income was positively associated with more fast food,” said Dr. Lawrence Cheskin, an associate professor and director of clinical research at the Global Obesity Prevention Center at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, who was not involved in the new report.

“That connection or correlation is opposite of what I perhaps would have expected,” he said. “But we need these kinds of studies and these kinds of facts and statistics to get a better understanding of what drives the use of foods that, as a nutrition expert I would say, are not your first choice for a variety of reasons.”

Cheskin, who is also director of the Johns Hopkins Weight Management Center, emphasized that foods high in sugar and fat can raise the risk of certain chronic health problems. “People have the lowest health risk when they eat fruits and vegetables and whole grains,” he said.

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Chain Reaction III: The third annual “Chain Reaction” report grades America's 25 largest fast food and “fast casual” restaurants on their antibiotics policies and meat sourcing practices. These eleven restaurant chains received an F grade for the third consecutive year due to lack of a meaningful antibiotics policy. Nine of these companies didn't respond to the survey at all.” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Chain Reaction III: The third annual “Chain Reaction” report grades America's 25 largest fast food and “fast casual” restaurants on their antibiotics policies and meat sourcing practices. These eleven restaurant chains received an F grade for the third consecutive year due to lack of a meaningful antibiotics policy. Nine of these companies didn't respond to the survey at all.” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170923164342-fast-food-antibiotics-2017-f-grade-super-169.png” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Chain Reaction III: The third annual “Chain Reaction” report grades America’s 25 largest fast food and “fast casual” restaurants on their antibiotics policies and meat sourcing practices. These eleven restaurant chains received an F grade for the third consecutive year due to lack of a meaningful antibiotics policy. Nine of these companies didn’t respond to the survey at all.

Chipotle – Grade: A “We started on our quest to serve meat from animals raised without the use of antibiotics in 1999, and continue to be a leader in this area today,” Chipotle spokesman Chris Arnold said in an email. “We made the decision to serve antibiotic-free meat simply because we thought it was the right thing to do — the right thing for farmers, for animal welfare, and for human health — and we continue to hold the belief today.” ” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Chipotle – Grade: A “We started on our quest to serve meat from animals raised without the use of antibiotics in 1999, and continue to be a leader in this area today,” Chipotle spokesman Chris Arnold said in an email. “We made the decision to serve antibiotic-free meat simply because we thought it was the right thing to do — the right thing for farmers, for animal welfare, and for human health — and we continue to hold the belief today.” ” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/150914175529-11-chipotle-super-169.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Chipotle – Grade: A “We started on our quest to serve meat from animals raised without the use of antibiotics in 1999, and continue to be a leader in this area today,” Chipotle spokesman Chris Arnold said in an email. “We made the decision to serve antibiotic-free meat simply because we thought it was the right thing to do — the right thing for farmers, for animal welfare, and for human health — and we continue to hold the belief today.”

Panera Bread – Grade: A “We're proud to have led the way on antibiotic reduction for more than a decade, starting with introducing chicken raised without antibiotics in 2004,” Sara Burnett, director of wellness and food policy at Panera, said in a statement. “Today at Panera, 100% of poultry, bacon, breakfast sausage and ham served on sandwiches and salads is raised without antibiotics.”” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Panera Bread – Grade: A “We're proud to have led the way on antibiotic reduction for more than a decade, starting with introducing chicken raised without antibiotics in 2004,” Sara Burnett, director of wellness and food policy at Panera, said in a statement. “Today at Panera, 100% of poultry, bacon, breakfast sausage and ham served on sandwiches and salads is raised without antibiotics.”” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/151103064721-panera-bread-file-super-169.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Panera Bread – Grade: A “We’re proud to have led the way on antibiotic reduction for more than a decade, starting with introducing chicken raised without antibiotics in 2004,” Sara Burnett, director of wellness and food policy at Panera, said in a statement. “Today at Panera, 100% of poultry, bacon, breakfast sausage and ham served on sandwiches and salads is raised without antibiotics.”

Subway – Grade: B+ “Our U.S. restaurants only serve chicken raised without antibiotics and we continue to work towards the elimination of antibiotic use in our Turkey, Pork and Beef supply,” Subway said in a statement. “Antibiotics are critical tools for keeping animals healthy and should be used responsibly to preserve their effectiveness in veterinary and human medicine. We are proud of our progress and are committed to continued work in this space.”” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Subway – Grade: B+ “Our U.S. restaurants only serve chicken raised without antibiotics and we continue to work towards the elimination of antibiotic use in our Turkey, Pork and Beef supply,” Subway said in a statement. “Antibiotics are critical tools for keeping animals healthy and should be used responsibly to preserve their effectiveness in veterinary and human medicine. We are proud of our progress and are committed to continued work in this space.”” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/140501102656-subway-employee-file-horizontal-large-gallery.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Subway – Grade: B+ “Our U.S. restaurants only serve chicken raised without antibiotics and we continue to work towards the elimination of antibiotic use in our Turkey, Pork and Beef supply,” Subway said in a statement. “Antibiotics are critical tools for keeping animals healthy and should be used responsibly to preserve their effectiveness in veterinary and human medicine. We are proud of our progress and are committed to continued work in this space.”

Chick-fil-A – Grade: B “Our efforts in the journey toward serving only chicken raised with No Antibiotics Ever (are) something our customers told us they wanted,” Rob Dugas, vice president of Chick-fil-A's supply chain, said in a statement. “We have converted more than 50% of our supply to chicken raised with No Antibiotics Ever to date, and we are on track to achieve our goal of converting 100% of our chicken supply by December 31, 2019.”

” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Chick-fil-A – Grade: B “Our efforts in the journey toward serving only chicken raised with No Antibiotics Ever (are) something our customers told us they wanted,” Rob Dugas, vice president of Chick-fil-A's supply chain, said in a statement. “We have converted more than 50% of our supply to chicken raised with No Antibiotics Ever to date, and we are on track to achieve our goal of converting 100% of our chicken supply by December 31, 2019.”

” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/140211150748-chick-fil-a-horizontal-large-gallery.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Chick-fil-A – Grade: B “Our efforts in the journey toward serving only chicken raised with No Antibiotics Ever (are) something our customers told us they wanted,” Rob Dugas, vice president of Chick-fil-A’s supply chain, said in a statement. “We have converted more than 50% of our supply to chicken raised with No Antibiotics Ever to date, and we are on track to achieve our goal of converting 100% of our chicken supply by December 31, 2019.”

Taco Bell – Grade: B- Taco Bell did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Taco Bell – Grade: B- Taco Bell did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/160718094926-taco-bell-sign-super-169.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Taco Bell – Grade: B- Taco Bell did not immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment.

KFC – Grade: B- “We're proud to be the first major chicken chain to commit to removing antibiotics important to human medicine in all of our chicken, including bone-in chicken,” the company said in a statement to CNN. “This change presented a unique challenge for us because we serve chicken-on-the-bone. As such, this move required close collaboration with our suppliers who bring KFC chicken from the farm to our kitchens where it is hand-prepared.”
” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

KFC – Grade: B- “We're proud to be the first major chicken chain to commit to removing antibiotics important to human medicine in all of our chicken, including bone-in chicken,” the company said in a statement to CNN. “This change presented a unique challenge for us because we serve chicken-on-the-bone. As such, this move required close collaboration with our suppliers who bring KFC chicken from the farm to our kitchens where it is hand-prepared.”
” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170408124256-cnnmoney-super-169.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

KFC – Grade: B- “We’re proud to be the first major chicken chain to commit to removing antibiotics important to human medicine in all of our chicken, including bone-in chicken,” the company said in a statement to CNN. “This change presented a unique challenge for us because we serve chicken-on-the-bone. As such, this move required close collaboration with our suppliers who bring KFC chicken from the farm to our kitchens where it is hand-prepared.”

McDonald's – Grade: C+ “Moving to cage-free eggs by 2025, sourcing chicken raised without antibiotics important to human medicine since 2015, and introducing McNuggets with no artificial flavors, colors or preservatives are all examples of our continued commitment to our US customers,” Marion Gross, senior vice president for McDonald's North America supply chain, said in a statement. “Because we know we can and must do more across the globe, last month we also announced that in 2018 we will begin implementing a chicken antibiotics policy in markets around the world. And we remain committed to making meaningful reductions in the use of antibiotics in beef and pork and will share our progress on beef in 2018.”” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

McDonald's – Grade: C+ “Moving to cage-free eggs by 2025, sourcing chicken raised without antibiotics important to human medicine since 2015, and introducing McNuggets with no artificial flavors, colors or preservatives are all examples of our continued commitment to our US customers,” Marion Gross, senior vice president for McDonald's North America supply chain, said in a statement. “Because we know we can and must do more across the globe, last month we also announced that in 2018 we will begin implementing a chicken antibiotics policy in markets around the world. And we remain committed to making meaningful reductions in the use of antibiotics in beef and pork and will share our progress on beef in 2018.”” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/150914175523-07-mcdonalds-super-169.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

McDonald’s – Grade: C+ “Moving to cage-free eggs by 2025, sourcing chicken raised without antibiotics important to human medicine since 2015, and introducing McNuggets with no artificial flavors, colors or preservatives are all examples of our continued commitment to our US customers,” Marion Gross, senior vice president for McDonald’s North America supply chain, said in a statement. “Because we know we can and must do more across the globe, last month we also announced that in 2018 we will begin implementing a chicken antibiotics policy in markets around the world. And we remain committed to making meaningful reductions in the use of antibiotics in beef and pork and will share our progress on beef in 2018.”

Wendy's – Grade: C “We continue to build on the progress we've made in phasing out the use of medically important antibiotics in our supply chain where possible,” the company said in a statement. “Wendy's is committed to accomplishing this with the help of suppliers, farmers and ranchers. We believe the steps we are taking will make a difference in protecting the future health of people and animals.”” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Wendy's – Grade: C “We continue to build on the progress we've made in phasing out the use of medically important antibiotics in our supply chain where possible,” the company said in a statement. “Wendy's is committed to accomplishing this with the help of suppliers, farmers and ranchers. We believe the steps we are taking will make a difference in protecting the future health of people and animals.”” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/150915170042-wendys-chicken-sandwich-super-169.jpeg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Wendy’s – Grade: C “We continue to build on the progress we’ve made in phasing out the use of medically important antibiotics in our supply chain where possible,” the company said in a statement. “Wendy’s is committed to accomplishing this with the help of suppliers, farmers and ranchers. We believe the steps we are taking will make a difference in protecting the future health of people and animals.”

Pizza Hut – Grade: D+ Pizza Hut did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Pizza Hut – Grade: D+ Pizza Hut did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/131128022701-pizza-hut-horizontal-large-gallery.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Pizza Hut – Grade: D+ Pizza Hut did not immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment.

Starbucks – Grade: D+ Starbucks did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Starbucks – Grade: D+ Starbucks did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/140922153254-02-cnn10-horizontal-large-gallery.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Starbucks – Grade: D+ Starbucks did not immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment.

Dunkin' Donuts – Grade: D “We do not own, raise, process or transport livestock, but we recognize that animal welfare is an important part of a safe and sustainable food supply chain,” the company said in a statement. “By the end of 2018, any chicken offered in Dunkin' Donuts restaurants will be sourced from chickens raised with no antibiotics ever.”” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Dunkin' Donuts – Grade: D “We do not own, raise, process or transport livestock, but we recognize that animal welfare is an important part of a safe and sustainable food supply chain,” the company said in a statement. “By the end of 2018, any chicken offered in Dunkin' Donuts restaurants will be sourced from chickens raised with no antibiotics ever.”” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170629164224-angus-steak-and-egg-sandwich-super-169.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Dunkin’ Donuts – Grade: D “We do not own, raise, process or transport livestock, but we recognize that animal welfare is an important part of a safe and sustainable food supply chain,” the company said in a statement. “By the end of 2018, any chicken offered in Dunkin’ Donuts restaurants will be sourced from chickens raised with no antibiotics ever.”

Burger King – Grade: D Burger King did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Burger King – Grade: D Burger King did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/130611134450-burger-king-file-horizontal-large-gallery.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Burger King – Grade: D Burger King did not immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment.

Papa John's – Grade: D Papa John's did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Papa John's – Grade: D Papa John's did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/130529115434-papa-johns-sign-horizontal-large-gallery.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Papa John’s – Grade: D Papa John’s did not immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment.

Jack in the Box – Grade: D Jack in the Box did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”image/gif;base64,R0lGODlhEAAJAJEAAAAAAP///////wAAACH5BAEAAAIALAAAAAAQAAkAAAIKlI+py+0Po5yUFQA7″ />

Jack in the Box – Grade: D Jack in the Box did not immediately respond to CNN's request for comment.” src=”https://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/170926163613-jack-in-the-box-fast-food—restricted-super-169.jpg” />

Photos: Restaurant report card: How is your fast food meat raised?

Jack in the Box – Grade: D Jack in the Box did not immediately respond to CNN’s request for comment.

The report also found that a higher percentage of non-Hispanic black adults — 42.4% — said they consumed fast food than non-Hispanic white adults at 37.6%, non-Hispanic Asian adults at 30.6% and Hispanic adults at 35.5%.

Among those who had eaten fast food, 43.7% did so during lunch, 42% during dinner, 22.7% during breakfast and 22.6% as snacks, according to the report.

More men (48.3%) than women (39.1%) said they ate fast food during lunch. However, more women (25.7%) than men (19.5%) said they had it as a snack. Among all adults, a higher percentage of men (37.9%) than women (35.4%) said they ate fast food on a given day.

The report has some limitations, including that the subjects’ dietary information was obtained through in-person interviews during which the adults recalled what they had eaten in the past 24 hours. Such recall interviews could lead to underreporting and other issues.

‘What we should be scared of is double cheeseburgers’

All in all, the report’s findings are what most experts would expect and mirror fast food consumption patterns found among children, said Jennifer Harris, an associate professor in allied health sciences at the University of Connecticut and director of marketing initiatives at the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, who was not involved in the new CDC report.

10 ways to make fast food healthier for your kids

“Other studies that have looked at 24-hour dietary recall like this have found a similar thing: that about a third of kids on any given day eat fast food,” Harris said.

Last month, a Rudd Center report said that 91% of 871 parents who took an online survey said they had purchased lunch or dinner for their child in the previous week at one of the four largest fast-food restaurant chains: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s or Subway. The survey was conducted in 2016.

“On average, they’d gone 2½ — actually 2.4 — times per week. So those numbers are pretty comparable to about a third on any given day,” Harris said.

The ‘surprising’ way food ads sway preschoolers’ snacking habits

That 91% was an increase from 79% of 771 parents in a 2010 survey and 83% of 835 parents in a 2013 survey, according to the Rudd Center report.

“We do know that fast food advertising has gone up during that time by pretty large amounts. We do know that parents take their children, they say, because it’s convenient, it’s a good value, and their kids like the food. So all of those are driving purchases of fast food,” Harris said.

“The other thing that we suspect is also that the restaurants have been introducing healthier items with their kids’ meals,” she said, adding that even though there are some healthier options on menus, several items are still high in calories, fat and salt.

“We know for children, on days that they consume fast food, they eat about 120 more calories that day. They also consume more sugar and sodium and fat on the days they eat fast food,” she said.

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Although fast food is typically higher in unhealthy saturated fat, sodium and calories, it tends to be low in several key nutrients that adult bodies need to flourish and that children’s bodies need to grow, said Liz Weinandy, a registered dietitian at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, who was not involved in the new CDC report.

“It is funny, when we see news clips of a shark swimming near a beach, it scares us into not going near that beach. However, what we should be scared of is double cheeseburgers, French fries and large amounts of sugary beverages,” Weinandy said.

“Adults can go to the grocery store more and prep food to take on the go so we don’t have to get in a situation where we need to rely on fast food so much,” she said. “It takes time and some organization. I see many people who are successful at this, though, when they take a couple of hours on the weekend, and again midweek, to prep food and then plan ahead just a little to take some things with them.”

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